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APSA Style Guide: Notes

This Political Science style guide provides examples on citing resources using the APSA Style Manual for Political Science which is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.


Here are examples of basic formats.  For footnotes and endnotes, the first line is indented and the second and subsequent lines start at the left margin. Chicago Style recommends that references be listed as footnotes or endnotes.  Unlike the list of sources cited (bibliography), the notes should list the author's first name followed by middle initial and last name:

Books (as footnote or endnote):


       1Name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Date), Pages.


       1John Doe, Writing styles (New York: Doe Publishers,
1999), 39. 

Personal Communication

From the APSA Style Manual for Political Science Students, p. 23.

"These are usually best indicated in the text or in a note.  Give the name of the person, the means of communication (telephone conversation, personal correspondence, interview, etc.), the date, and (if appropriate) the place."

Footnotes or Endnotes


Articles (as footnote or endnote):


       2Name, "Article title," Journal title Volume number (Date):


       2Jane Jones, "Writing with style,"  Style Writing Journal 12,
no. 6 (1999):  14-33. 

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Whether online or in print, general encyclopedias (e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Webster's Dictionary, Wikipedia, etc.) are rarely cited in the bibliographies.  They should be cited in notes.  Those reference works which include substantial research articles that indicate the authors, should be cited in the bibliography.  The examples below are for general works cited only in the notes field. For more information on how to cite more substantial works in the notes, see sections 14.247 (print resources) and 14.248 (online resources) in the Chicago Manual of Style Online or check the Dictionaries and Encyclopedias box on the Citing Books  page of this guide.

Print Encyclopedias:


Online Encyclopedias: