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Modern Language Association (MLA) Citation Style: Notes

This is a guide on how to use the Modern Language Association citation style. It provides examples of basic formats for sources using MLA Style.


Here is an example of basic format.  Footnotes and endnotes are used only for making brief comments.  Cite the full information in "Works Cited" list of references. MLA recommends that references be made within the text whenever possible.

References within the text:


(Author's last name  Page number(s))


(Johnson 95)

Indirect Sources

Only cite indirect sources when you are unable to obtain the original. When you are quoting or paraphrasing information by someone who was quoted in another source (indirect), and you have not read the original, you should cite the original source within the text as "quoted in", and then cite the indirect source in the reference list.  You should attempt to find and read the original work, if possible. 

Citing original work within text: noted by Michael Wolff (qtd. in Fleishman 64)


Citing indirect source in in Works Cited list:

Fleishman, Avrom. George Eliot's Intellectual Life. Cambridge.

      Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.