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Citing Theological Sources: How to do a Bibliography: General Citations: Books, Articles, Websites, etc.

For general citations, this guide leads you to other guides prepared by UST Libraries' Reference Department . However, Bible and Church document examples may refer to the MLA Style Manual, Turabian, or the SBL Handbook of Style.

Chicago / Turabian Style used by The Saint Paul Seminary School of Divinity

The Chicago or Turabian style, sometimes called documentary note or humanities style, places bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page or at the end of a paper.

Citation Styles for Humanities Papers

Check with instructor on the preferred style he or she wishes you to use and be sure to conslult the most up-to-date edition of that style manual.

See Main UST Library Citation Guide

About Style Manuals

Which should you use?

Ask each of your professors which style they want you to use. If they have no preference you can follow any of these styles (just be consistent). However, most of our Seminary students are asked to use either the MLA or Turabian Style Manuals.

  • APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences.
  • MLA: literature, arts, and humanities.
  • AMA: medicine, health, and biological sciences.
  • Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects.
  • Chicago: used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

Print versions of these style manuals contain examples of citing more sources than these web pages do, as well as other things you may need to know, such as margins, font size, etc.

I like the "Long Island University Library Guide" as it is "COLOR CODED."



Use RefWorks to keep track of resources you find in your research, and to create your bibliography when finished.

Learn more about Refworks and get the UST Refworks Group Code (login required).

For those who do not have access to UST's RefWorks subscription: BibMe Bibliography Maker

BibMe Bibligraphy Maker


VERY simple, BASIC, free online source.

For those who do not have access to UST's RefWorks subscription: Zotero

Sophisticated, free, open source, online citation tool. Zotero works with Firefox for Windows, Mac and Linux but not Internet Explorer (IE) or Google Chrome.

Citing Church Documents using the Harvard Style

            Identify the passage of the document to cite. Get "at least" the name of the pope who wrote the document, title of the document, publication date -- and for endnotes or in-text citations, get the paragraph or section number. Honorific titles such as "Pope" are not used, so Pope John Paul II would be cited as "John Paul II."  Alternate forms of citing popes: could also be listed as either "Catholic Church";  or "Catholic Church, & Francis".For an in text citation, put in the Latin name of the Document and paragraph number – e.g., to cite the first paragraph in the section on "Eternal Newness" in Pope Francis' Apostolic Exhortation, Evangelii Gaudium  - paragraph 11:  The in-text citation is: (Evangelii Gaudium, §11)  - Try Neil's Toolbox link below - a free online bibliography generator just dealing with the Harvard Style...

Subject Guide

Curt LeMay's picture
Curt LeMay
Library Director / Theological Librarian
The Archbishop Ireland Memorial Library
Mail # IRL
Office - 101 Ireland Library
Library Liaison for Theology
Telephone: 651-962-5451
Fax: 651-962-5460
Website / Blog Page

UST Center for Writing

UST Writing CenterWould you like some expert assistance with writing and editing your paper? 

Check out the resources available from the Writing Center.


CLIC Plaigiarism tutorial

Concerned about Plagiarism? You should be! View this multi-media tutorial for more information.

Off Campus Access


Online databases and electronic journals subscribed to by the UST Libraries are licensed for use by the St. Thomas community ONLY.  Because of this restriction, we need to verify that anyone accessing these databases is a current member of the St. Thomas community.