This page shows examples of only a few types of resources. For more detailed information, use the APA style manuals and web sites listed below. Return to the Citing Sources page to access other bibliographic styles. This format is used principally by the social sciences fields. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition is used.
All call numbers listed are those for the University of St. Thomas Libraries, St. Paul, MN.
Here are examples of basic formats for sources (second and subsequent lines are
indented). Include as much information as you are able to locate from the
resource. In the bibliography, the first author's last name is listed first. Resources are listed alphabetically by first author's last name. Citations are double-spaced. For anonymous works, the citation is inserted into the alphabetical list using the first word(s) of the title:
Books--those found in print format are listed first. See"Electronic Format" subcategory for those found full-text online: Author(s). (Date). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
(In previous editions of the publication manual, names of well-known, major cities could stand alone. The 6th edition requires the state abbreviation for US cities and the country for cities in other countries.)
Doe, J. (1999). Writing styles. New York, NY:
Two to six authors:
Doe, J., Richards, R.S., & Smith, T.J. (2001). Writing techniques.
New York, NY: Doe Publishers.
More than six authors:
Doe, J., Richards, R.S., Jones, J.A., Jones, J.D., Johnson, R.D.,
Smith, T.J., et. al. (2002). The style and technique of
writing. New York, NY: Doe Publishers.
No author listed:
Electronic reference formats in the community. (2002). New
York, NY: Doe Publishers.
Place of publication outside the United States.
Johnston, A. (2003). Missionary and empire, 1800-1860.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, T.R. (2000). How to write. In R.D. Jones, &
R.S. Richards (Eds.), Writing with style and technique
(pp. 96-101). New York, NY: Doe Publishers.
Electronic only books--doi is used in sample below. If doi is not available, identify url of publisher instead:
Jones, S.P. (2008). Writing for the future. doi:109.876.5X43.21
Articles: (for multiple authors, see "Books" above) Following are examples for articles found in print resources. When found online, see "Computerized Resources" below:
Jones, J. (1999). Writing with style. Style
Writing Journal, 12(6), 14-33.
Computerized resources: Include all information that is available in the computerized source. For multiple authors, see "Books" above. For continuous paging, see "Articles" above.
Jones, J.T. (2001). How writing influences our lives
Style Writing Journal, 14(6), 112-135. doi:12.3X445.678.9101
Johnson, R.N. (2001). What writing style does for me.
Style Writing Journal, 14(6), 92-101.
Retrieved from http://www.stylewrjnl.com/index
Here are examples of basic formats. APA Style cites references Within the Text. Although page number(s) are not required, for direct quotes you should include the page number(s) or chapter. If no page number is listed, use the paragraph number, if available. See assorted examples below:
(Doe & Smith, 2004)
(Doe, Richards, Jones, and Jones, 2001)
(Doe et. al., 2001) OR,
(Doe et. al., 2001)
("Electronic reference formats", 2002)
American Psychological Association. (2007). APA Style Guide to Electronic
References. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
(REF Z 253 .P835 2007)
American Psychological Association (2009). APA Style Help. Retrieved from
Check out the "Free Tutorial on the Basics of APA Style".
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.:
American Psychological Association. (REF Z 253 .P83 2010)
Schuzman, L. T. & Thomlison, B. (2004). Writing with Style: APA Style for
Social Work. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. University
of Southern Mississippi Libraries. (REF HM 586 .S98 2004)
This is based on the APA 5th edition.
Scribe, A. (2009). APA (Style) Lite for College Papers. Retrieved