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APA Citation Style 6th ed.: Other Resources

This is a guide on how to use the American Psychological Association citation style. It provides examples of basic formats for sources using APA Style.

Personal Communication

"Personal communications may be private letters, memos, some electronic communications..., personal interview, telephone conversations, and the like.  Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list.  Cite personal communications in text only.  Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible" (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010).  Go to Page 179 for more specific information on citing this format:


   Communicator identified in text:

         Author named in text (personal communication, date of communication)

   Communicator NOT identified in text:

         (Author, personal communication, date of communication)


   Communicator identified in text:

         J.P Johnson (personal communication, December 5, 2010)

   Communicator NOT identified in text:

         (T. Richardson, personal communication, July 9, 2009)

Television Shows


Include information that you are able to identify:

Name (Writer) & Name (Director). (Date). Title of episode. [Television series

         episode]. In Name (Executive producer), Series. Place of publication:

         Television Broadcaster.


Stewart, Jon (Writer). (2012). Time Magazine's U.S. Edition  [Television

         series episode]. In The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. New York, NY:

         Comedy Central.

Blog posts

When citing a blog post, if the author's real name is not listed, use the "screen name" instead.


Author. (Complete date of post). Title of post. [Web log post]. Retrieved

         from URL


merriealynn. (2009, October 20). DOI (Digital Object Identifier)  in APA style. [Web log

         post]. Retrieved from

Census Data/County Business Patterns

Population data:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Hennepin County,  Minnesota--Income in the Past 12 Months. [Table]. Retrieved from

Economic Census:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Retail Trade: Geographic area series: Summary statistics for the United States, States, Metro areas. counties, and places: 2012. [Table]. Retrieved from

County Business Patterns:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Ramsey County, Minnesota--2012 County Business Patterns (NAICS). [Table]. Retrieved from

ERIC Documents

ERIC Documents are cited like other Technical and Research Reports (see page 212 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association):


Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of Document. Retrieved

      from Database name.(Report #).


Sales, A. (2004). Preventing substance abuse: a guide for school

      counselors. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED482769).

Secondary Sources

Only cite secondary sources when you are unable to obtain the original. When you are quoting or paraphrasing information by someone who was quoted in a secondary source, and you have not read the original, you should cite the original source within the text, and then cite the secondary source in the reference list.  You should attempt to find and read the original work, if possible. 

Citing original work within text:

Example: noted by Virginia Chou (as cited in Appiah, 2010)...

Citing secondary source in reference list:


   Appiah, K.W. (2010). The Honor Code: How moral revolutions

         happen. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.


SimplyAnalytics. (2017). % Households consuming Imported Beer/Ale: Drank in Last 6 Months. MRI data retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics. (2017). Map based on Family Income: $200,000 and over. Census data retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.

SimplyAnalytics. (2017.) %Food - Snack/Dessert Ice Cream & Sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz. SimmonsLocal data retrived from SimplyAnalytics database.


SimplyAnalytics. (2016). % Multimarket Data - Leisure Activities - Current Level of Interest in Major League Soccer (MLS) - Somewhat. Nielsen Scarborough data retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.

Example with multiple variables:

SimplyAnalytics (2017.) Head of household income and bacon consumption in Minneapolis. Census 2010 Estimate and Simmons Data 2016. Retrieved from SimplyAnalytics database.

YouTube Videos


Author(s). (Complete date). Title [Video File]. Retrieved

      from URL


University of St. Thomas. (2010, June 1). Location Location

      Location/University of St. Thomas [Video File]. Retrieved