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APA Citation Style 6th ed.: In-Text Notes

This is a guide on how to use the American Psychological Association citation style. It provides examples of basic formats for sources using APA Style.


Here are examples of basic formats. APA Style cites references Within the Text. Although page number(s) are not required, for direct quotes you should include the page number(s) or chapter.  If no page number is listed, use the paragraph number, if available.  For exceptions, as well as more examples, see pages 174-179 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. See assorted examples below:

Basic format:
(Author's last name, year, page number)

One or two authors :
(Doe & Smith, 2004)

Multiple (3-5) authors:

First time listed:
  (Doe, Richards, Jones, and Jones, 2001)

Subsequent cites:
 (Doe et. al., 2001) 

Multiple (6 or more) authors:
(Richards et al., 2009)

No authors:

Format:   (First few words of reference list entry which is usually the "title", year)

Example:  ("Electronic reference formats", 2002)

Legal Resources Notes--In-Text Citations

Court Cases:

(Brady v. Maryland, 1963)


Brady v. Maryland (1963)

Federal or State Statutes:

Civil Rights Act (1964)


Civil Rights Act of 1964

Personal Communication

"Personal communications may be private letters, memos, some electronic communications..., personal interview, telephone conversations, and the like.  Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list.  Cite personal communications in text only.  Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible" (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010).  Go to Page 179 for more specific information on citing this format:


   Communicator identified in text:

         Author named in text (personal communication, date of communication)

   Communicator NOT identified in text:

         (Author, personal communication, date of communication)


   Communicator identified in text:

         J.P Johnson (personal communication, December 5, 2010)

   Communicator NOT identified in text:

         (T. Richardson, personal communication, July 9, 2009)

Purdue OWL: In-Text Citations