Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Film 200 Introduction to Film Studies: Getting Started: Citing Sources

A Library Research Guide for FILM 200: Intro to Film Studies, Fall 2017, Dr. Paola Ehrmantraut


Refworks logo

Use RefWorks to keep track of resources you find in your research, and to create your bibliography when finished.
Learn more here.

UST Center for Writing

UST Writing CenterWould you like some expert assistance with writing and editing your paper? 

Check out the resources available from the Writing Center.

  Modern Language Association Style

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style:

This page shows examples of only a few types of resources.  For more detailed information, use the MLA style manuals and web sites listed below.  Return to the Citing Sources page to access other bibliographic styles.

All call numbers listed are those for the University of St. Thomas Libraries, St. Paul, MN.

MLA Style is used principally by the liberal arts and business fields.  The Chicago Style (Turabian) is also used by these fields.

This guide is based on the 3rd edition of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.

Bibliographies (Works cited):

Here are examples of basic formats for sources (second and subsequent lines are indented).  Include as much information as you are able to locate from the resource. In the bibliography, the first author's last name is listed first.  Citations are double-spaced. Resources are listed alphabetically by first author's last name  For anonymous works, the citation is inserted into the alphabetical list using the first word(s) of the title:

Books: Author(s). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Publication format.

  • Single author:

         Doe, John. Writing Styles. New York: Doe Publishers, 1999. Print.

  • Two or Three authors:

        Doe, John, and Thomas Smith.  Writing Techniques.  New York:  

                Doe Publishers, 2001. Print.

  • More than three authors (use et. al. or list all authors):

         Doe, John, et. al.  The Style and Technique of Writing.  New

                York: Doe Publishers, 2002. Print.

  • No author listed:

         Electronic Reference Formats in the Community.  New York:  Doe

                Publishers, 2002. Print.

  • Book chapters or anthologies:

         Smith, Thomas.  "How to write."  Writing With Style and

                    Technique. Ed. by Richard Jones.  New York: Doe

                 Publishers, 2000. 
    110-129. Print.

Articles (for multiple authors, see "Books" above):

Author. "Article title." Journal title, Volume #.Issue # (Date): Page

Publication format.


          Jones, Jane.  "Writing with style." Style Writing Journal 12.6 (2005):

                     14-33. Print.

Computerized resources (for multiple authors, see "Books" above):        

  • Online full-text journal article (also available in print):
    Author. "Title." Journal title, Volume #.Issue # (Date): Page

          number(s). Title of Database.
     Publication medium. Date of access.

Jones, James. "How Writing Influences Our Lives." Local

. (12 May 2001): 1D. Newspapers Online. Web.

      22 October 2009. 


  • Internet Example (only available on the Web):
    Author. Title. Publisher (if no publisher use:  N.p.). Date of publication (if

               not available use:  n.d.). Publication medium. Date of access.

               What is MLA style. Modern Language Association. 2009. Web.

                      22 October 2009.


Here is an example of basic format.  Footnotes and endnotes are used only for making brief comments.  Cite the full information in "Works Cited" list of references. MLA recommends that references be made within the text whenever possible.

  • References within the text:
    (Author's last name  Page number(s))

(Johnson 95)


   MLA Style Manuals:

Modern Lanuage Association of America. The MLA Style Manual and Guide to

       Scholarly Publishing.
3rd ed. New York: The Modern Language Association

       of America, 2008. Print. (REF Z 253 .A28 2008)

Modern Language Association of Americ. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

         7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2009. Print. (REF Z 253 .A29 2009)


Ritter, R.M.  The Oxford Guide to Style.  Oxford, England:  Oxford University Press,

       2002.  Print. (REF PN 147 .R588 1997)

      Although this covers the "Oxford Style", it is similar to MLA and is also used for liberal arts topics.


Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue

       University Writing Lab, 10 May 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2008


"Refereed" or "Peer Reviewed" Journals 

"Peer review" is the process through which experts in a field of study examine and assess the quality of articles before they are published. Peer review insures that the research described in a journal's articles is sound and of high quality.

Sometimes the term "refereed" is used instead of peer reviewed.

Lists found in:

  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.
    Available through the "Find Articles & More" page.  Click on the "Book & Publication Information" link under "General Sources". Search for the title of the journal.  Look for "Refereed" in the record.
  • The Serials Directory
    Available through the "Find Articles & More" page.  Click on the "Book & Publication Information" link under "General Sources". Search for the title of the journal.  Look for "Peer Rev:  YES" in the record.

    USE BOTH PUBLICATIONS. Neither has a whole list, but  together they are nearly complete.

Library Liaison

Profile Photo
Cindy Badilla-Melendez
Head of the Music and Media Collections
OSF Library 104 B

Media, Music, Modern and Classical Languages, Films Studies
Subjects: Film, Languages, Music