This is the "General Citations: Books, Articles, Websites, etc." page of the "Citing Theological Sources: How to do a Bibliography" guide.
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Citing Theological Sources: How to do a Bibliography   Tags: church documents, citation styles, mla style; theology; citations  

For general citations, this guide leads you to other guides prepared by UST Libraries' Reference Department . However, Bible and Church document examples may refer to the MLA Style Manual, Turabian, or the SBL Handbook of Style.
Last Updated: Jul 30, 2014 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

General Citations: Books, Articles, Websites, etc. Print Page

Citation Styles

Check with instructor on the preferred style he or she wishes you to use and be sure to conslult the most up-to-date edition of that style manual.

Cover Art
MLA handbook for writers of research papers. - 7th edition
ISBN: 1603290249
The MLA Handbook is an academic style guide widely used in the United States, Canada, and other countries, providing guidelines for writing and documentation of research in the HUMANITIES, which includes Theology. (However, be sure to use your instructor's preferred style manual.) Note: It is no longer fashionable to use ibid or op. cit. when using this Handbook.

Cover Art
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition - Kate L. Turabian; Wayne C. Booth (Revised by); Gregory G. Colomb (Revised by); University of Chicago Press Staff (Revised by); Joseph M. Williams (Revised by)
ISBN: 0226816389
Publication Date: 2013-03-28
The Manual for Writers continues to be the gold standard for generations of college and graduate students in virtually all academic disciplines. Now in its eighth edition, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations has been fully revised to meet the needs of today’s writers and researchers.

The Manual retains its familiar three-part structure, beginning with an overview of the steps in the research and writing process, including formulating questions, reading critically, building arguments, and revising drafts. Part II provides an overview of citation practices with detailed information on the two main scholarly citation styles (notes-bibliography and author-date), an array of source types with contemporary examples, and detailed guidance on citing online resources

Cover Art
Student's guide to writing college papers / Kate L. Turabian. - 4th edition.
ISBN: 0226816303
This book is a concise distillation of the enormous Chicago Style Manual. Recommended for college and graduate students--particularly those who must use multiple citation styles.

See Main UST Library Citation Guide

  • Main UST Library Citation Guides
    Use these as your main guides for books and articles. Covers several common citation styles, including Chicago, APA, Turabian, and MLA

About Style Manuals

Which should you use?

Ask each of your professors which style they want you to use. If they have no preference you can follow any of these styles (just be consistent). However, most of our Seminary students are asked to use either the MLA or Turabian Style Manuals.

  • APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences.
  • MLA: literature, arts, and humanities.
  • AMA: medicine, health, and biological sciences.
  • Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects.
  • Chicago: used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

Print versions of these style manuals contain examples of citing more sources than these web pages do, as well as other things you may need to know, such as margins, font size, etc.

I like the "Long Island University Library Guide" as it is "COLOR CODED."

RefWorks - UST Faculty, Staff, Students and Alumni only

Refworks logo

Use RefWorks to keep track of resources you find in your research, and to create your bibliography when finished.

Learn more about Refworks and get the UST Refworks Group Code (login required).


    For those who do not have access to UST's RefWorks subscription: BibMe Bibliography Maker

    BibMe Bibligraphy Maker


    VERY simple, BASIC, free online source.

    For those who do not have access to UST's RefWorks subscription: Zotero

    Sophisticated, free, open source, online citation tool. Zotero works with Firefox for Windows, Mac and Linux but not Internet Explorer (IE) or Google Chrome.

    Citing Church Documents using the Harvard Style

                Identify the passage of the document to cite. Get "at least" the name of the pope who wrote the document, title of the document, publication date -- and for endnotes or in-text citations, get the paragraph or section number. Honorific titles such as "Pope" are not used, so Pope John Paul II would be cited as "John Paul II."  Alternate forms of citing popes: could also be listed as either "Catholic Church";  or "Catholic Church, & Francis".For an in text citation, put in the Latin name of the Document and paragraph number – e.g., to cite the first paragraph in the section on "Eternal Newness" in Pope Francis' Apostolic Exhortation, Evangelii Gaudium  - paragraph 11:  The in-text citation is: (Evangelii Gaudium, §11)  - Try Neil's Toolbox link below - a free online bibliography generator just dealing with the Harvard Style...

    Subject Guide

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    Curt LeMay
    Contact Info
    Library Director / Theological Librarian
    The Archbishop Ireland Memorial Library
    Mail # IRL
    Office - 101 Ireland Library

    Library Liaison for Theology
    Telephone: 651-962-5451
    Fax: 651-962-5460
    Send Email
    Faculty Liaison:
    Faculty members in the Department of Theology and the St. Paul Seminary School of Divinity may contact me to do a Library Skills class in their area. Please give me two weeks notice when scheduling a class session. These same faculty members may suggest library purchases in their area. Please send your purchase suggestions to me.

    UST Center for Writing

    UST Writing CenterWould you like some expert assistance with writing and editing your paper? 

    Check out the resources available from the Writing Center.



    CLIC Plaigiarism tutorial

    Concerned about Plagiarism? You should be! View this multi-media tutorial for more information.

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